Air pollution is a severe threat to children’s health and wellbeing. Children exposed to particulate air pollution are predicted, throughout their life-course, to experience illness and neurodevelopmental issues with considerable risk to quality of life and earning potential. The pollutants may be particulate or gaseous and are emitted from a very diverse range of sources, including from various types of outdoor or indoor combustion. These exposures may be a daily occurrence, for example from vehicle emissions or indoor cooking, or can be sudden, catastrophic haze events caused by seasonal vegetation burning. Whilst the primary recommendation is to remove children from harm, air pollution is a pervasive hazard, especially in tropical countries where building structures and cooking methods may not facilitate effective exposure reduction, indoors. Thus, the development of best practices to limit the consequences of air pollution on children’s health and wellbeing are vital. Parents/guardians may be faced with a range of untested interventions and require evidence to choose the best protection for their children.