Устойчивая урбанизация

Устойчивая урбанизация
Overview

overview

 

Города служат движущей силой экономического прогресса и инноваций, а также центрами культуры, исследований, знаний и развития. То, каким образом происходит урбанизация и развитие городов Азиатско-Тихоокеанского регионе будет оказывать большое влияние на все три компонента устойчивого развития и, следовательно, на будущую устойчивость планеты. Нынешние модели быстрой, обширной и неспланированной урбанизации принципиально неустойчивы. Города в регионе сталкиваются с серьезными проблемами - от управления потреблением ресурсов до удовлетворения потребностей в жилье и инфраструктуре для повышения жизнестойкости к потрясениям и медленным изменениям. Однако, в случае интегрированной и хорошо спланировананой урбанизации, она предоставит значительные возможности для стимулирования трансформационных изменений, которые приведут города к большей устойчивости.

Недавние глобальные программы развития признали важность городских районов и городов в устойчивом развитии. Многие из Целей в области устойчивого развития (ЦУР) Повестки дня в области устойчивого развития на период до 2030 года предусматривают городское измерение, требующего местных действий, а ЦУР 11 призывает «обеспечение открытости, безопасности, жизнестойкости и экологической устойчивости городов». Парижское соглашение призывает города наращивать усилия и поддерживать действия по сокращению выбросов и смягчению последствий изменения климата. Точно так же в Сендайской рамочной программе по снижению риска бедствий на 2015–2030 годы признается роль местных органов власти в уменьшении рисков и борьбе с бедствиями в городских районах. Наконец, Новая Городская Повестка (NUA) служит руководством для городского планирования и поощряет города стать двигателями социального процветания при защите окружающей среды.

Общие сведения

background

 

В 2016 году более половины городского населения мира проживало в Азиатско-Тихоокеанском регионе [1]. Урбанизация в Азии и Тихом океане продвигается в беспрецедентных масштабах, темпах и сложности. За последние 30 лет города региона выросли примерно на один миллиард человек, и, согласно прогнозам, к 2040 году будет добавлен еще один миллиард [2]. Во многом это будет происходить за счет естественного прироста населения в городах и переклассификации, а не за счет миграции из сел в города. В то время как Азия является домом для 19 из 31 «мегаполисов» мира (то есть городов с населением более 10 миллионов человек) и мегагородских районов с населением в десятки миллионов человек, большинство городских жителей региона проживает в средних и малых городах. 40 процентов городского населения проживают в населенных пунктах с населением менее 300 000 человек. Более того, самая быстрая урбанизация сегодня наблюдается в менее урбанизированных развивающихся странах, таких как Лаосская Народно-Демократическая Республика или Непал. Драматические изменения происходят в таких местах, которые наименее подготовлены для борьбы с ними.

Города в Азиатско-Тихоокеанском регионе производят около 80 процентов экономической продукции региона [3]. Способствовав выведению миллионов людей региона из бедности, города стали существенным достоянием национальных экономик. В течение следующих десятилетий одной из тенденций мегаполисов будет резкий рост среднего класса, который, согласно оценкам, к 2030 году достигнет 3,2 миллиарда человек, что составляет 80 процентов от общего числа в мире [4]. Однако базовые потребности, такие как инфраструктура и услуги, жилье и безопасность, остаются неудовлетворенными для сотен миллионов городских жителей, живущих в условиях многомерной бедности. 440 миллионов человек в Азиатско-Тихоокеанском регионе, или 26,9 процента, живут в трущобах и неформальных поселениях, при этом абсолютное число продолжает расти. Урбанизирующий регион также идет рука об руку с изменениями в социальной структуре - от большей личной свободы и возможностей в сфере образования и профессиональной жизни до изменения структуры семьи и старения населения - все это влияет на физическую форму городов и создает потребности в новых социальных услугах. Однако необходимо сделать гораздо больше, чтобы города стали более инклюзивными и доступными для различных социальных групп, таких как женщины и девочки или инвалиды. Это включает в себя повышение безопасности и доступности общественного транспорта или уличного освещения.

Изменения в структуре производства и потребления, отходов и загрязнения оказывают существенное влияние на природные ресурсы и экосистемы, а также на благосостояние людей. При сценарии «как обычно» многие города региона столкнутся с проблемой нехватки воды в будущем, в то время как потребление ресурсов является не только неустойчивым, но и существенно выросло, двигаясь в неправильном направлении. Количество твердых отходов, образующихся в городах, по оценкам, увеличится более чем вдвое к 2025 году до 2,65 миллиона тонн в день. В то же время загрязнение воздуха продолжает расти угрожающими темпами, особенно в городах региона с низким уровнем дохода, где концентрации твердых частиц (PM2,5 и PM10) значительно превышают рекомендованные стандарты Всемирной организации здравоохранения (ВОЗ) [5].

Азиатско-Тихоокеанский регион также уязвим к изменению климата и стихийным бедствиям. Ущерб и убытки, связанные с бедствиями, высоки, особенно для прибрежных городов Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона. Из 10 городов, которые, согласно прогнозам, будут иметь самые высокие среднегодовые потери от наводнений к 2050 году, шесть расположены в регионе [6]. Необходимы дальнейшие согласованные действия, чтобы сделать города более устойчивыми. Интегрированные ответные меры и конкретные и скоординированные национальные и муниципальные политики должны быть реализованы на местном уровне, чтобы построить эффективное с точки зрения ресурсов и устойчивое будущее, в котором передовая практика может быть воспроизведена и преумножена.

Различные экономические, социальные и экологические преобразования в городах региона отражают их сложность и динамизм. Проблемы урбанизации могут быть решены только с помощью последовательной политики, стратегий и инновационных структур, которые устраняют дефицит финансирования и потенциала местных и центральных органов власти. Города состоят из инфраструктуры и социально-экономических сетей, в которых различные заинтересованные стороны, включая национальное и местное правительство, бизнес и гражданское общество, взаимодействуют на формальном и неформальном уровнях. Чтобы противостоять сложным проблемам быстро растущих городских районов, необходимо развивать эффективные многоуровневые и совместные системы управления. 


[1] https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-highlights.pdf

[2] http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/The%20State%20of%20Asian%20and%20Pacific%20Cities%202015.pdf P. 11

[3] https://asiafoundation.org/2015/02/11/trends-that-will-shape-asias-economic-future-part-2/

[4] ESCAP 73rd Commission Session, Commission Paper

[5] World Health Organization (2016), WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, available from http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/

[6] S. Hallegatte et. al (2013). Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nature Climate Change (Vol 3): 802-806, available from https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate1979

Городское управление ресурсами
  • Sustainable Solutions for Asian Cities through Innovative and Integrated Resource Management: The Urban Nexus

To respond to the challenges of natural resource scarcity, increasing waste and sanitation problems, and growing inequality, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH has been implementing the project “Integrated resource management in Asian Cities: the urban nexus” since 2013, in partnership with ESCAP and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and with funding from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Co­op­er­a­tion and De­vel­op­ment (BMZ). The overarching goal is to increase uptake of urban nexus approaches in selected cities and by relevant stakeholders. The project objective is to enhance the capacity of national and local governments in developing countries in Asia-Pacific to formulate and implement integrated policies, plans and initiatives for the sustainable management of natural resources in urban areas focusing on water, energy, solid waste and wastewater. The project assists selected cities in identifying opportunities for introducing a nexus approach and developing concrete project ideas, while establishing a dialogue between national and local governments to identify and remove policy barriers to promote integrated resource management in cities.

urban nexus

Link: http://www.unescap.org/urban-nexus/

 

  • Localizing an SDG Sub-set on Sustainable Urban Resource Management in Cities of Asia Pacific

Local governments are vital to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They need to be ready to plan and implement the SDGs in their cities and to review progress at local level – or in other words, they need to be enabled to effectively participate in the “localisation of the SDGs”. ESCAP jointly with UN-Habitat and partners is starting a new initiative to assist city governments and other key urban stakeholders in adapting their local development plans and in implementing linked activities in line with a thematic subset of SDGs on sustainable management of natural resources and sustainable consumption and production (SCP). The project defines this thematic SDG subset as consisting of SDGs: 6 (clean water and sanitation) 7 (affordable and clean energy), 11 (sustainable cities and communities), 12 (responsible consumption and production), and 17 (partnerships for the goals) and refers to it collectively as “urban resource management”. The project will develop regional training and reference materials and assist several pilot cities with strengthening a) multi-stakeholder partnerships, b) evidence-based policy-making, and c) systems based approaches to urban planning and action.

 

  • Closing the Loop: Unlocking the informal economy to recover plastic waste and reduce marine pollution as part of an inclusive circular economy approach

A new project from ESCAP aims to strengthen the capacity of policy makers to improve urban waste management systems and reduce pollution by understanding the possible intersection of formal and informal waste processes as one building block of a larger circular economy approach that maximizes social, economic and environmental impacts (SDGs 11, 12, 14 and 17). ESCAP is in a unique position to facilitate this process through its regional network and expertise in resource efficiency, circular economy and integrated municipal solid waste management.

 

  • Integrated Resource Recovery Centers and Sustainable Development in Small Cities in Asia-Pacific  

Since 2009, ESCAP, Waste Concern and their partners have been promoting a waste-to-resource approach to sustainable solid waste management in towns and cities across the region. The project has helped local actors to deploy inclusive programs and strategies for adopting 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycling) practices and establish Integrated Resource Recovery Centers (IRRCs). Under this approach, rather than view waste as a problem and burden, it is a valuable resource, one that can be managed to produce sustainable benefits for a range of actors. The project has now come to an end, but tools and lessons learned can be accessed here:

water2resource

Link: http://waste2resource.org/

 

  • Valuing Waste, Transforming Cities

A waste crisis is emerging in the Asia and Pacific region, fueled by rising quantities of waste, on the one hand, and poor regulation and management, on the other. This crisis threatens to overwhelm the resources and capacity of local governments and communities alike. Within this crisis, however, is a significant and largely untapped opportunity for transformative change. The waste-to-resource approach promotes a paradigm shift in the management of solid waste.

valuing waste,

 

  • Valuing the Sustainable Development Co-benefits of Climate Change Mitigation Actions

The paper uses the case of the waste sector to illustrate the co-benefits associated with certain typologies of climate change mitigation projects, provide suggestions for their quantification and monetization, and draw recommendations for the design of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), including the role of government.

valuing

 

  • Wastewater Management and Sanitation in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas

The course on Wastewater Management and Sanitation has an emphasis on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) policies and is based on the corresponding Policy Guidance Manual. The course focuses on developing policies to promote wastewater management and sanitation to ensure water security in South-East Asia, using the integrated water resource management (IWRM) approach.

wastewater management course

 

  • Policy Guidance Manual on Wastewater Management with a Special Emphasis on Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems

Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS), which is packaging enabling policy and technology, are outlined to be the most effective solution to these issues in the region. This manual provides a step-by-step guide to developing and implementing DEWATS with a set of financial schemes, market opportunities, investment and potential impacts. ESCAP and UN-Habitat jointly implemented the project outlined in this manual to address wastewater and sanitation issues in developing countries of South-East Asia.

policy guidance

Городское и муниципальное управление
  • Empowering cities to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the New Urban Agenda: Mobilizing municipal finance for sustainable infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region

ESCAP/EDD has produced new analytical research for city and national governments to improve the institutional enabling environments for local governments to leverage their resources through longer tenor debt, equity and land based financing of urban infrastructure. A new paper draws on experiences from industrialised and developing countries in raising private debt, equity and land based financing for urban infrastructure and identifies appropriate policy actions for a typology of financing situations in the Asia-Pacific region.

 

  • Working Paper on Water Markets in Asia and the Pacific: An overview of Trends, Opportunities, Risks and Policies

The purpose of this study is to provide an assessment of investment trends, and opportunities of water and sanitation markets in the Asia-Pacific region. It also highlights risks and key policies that are important to stimulate water markets and investments in the region. The study indicates increased investments in water infrastructure with the main drivers being regulatory and legislative conditions, and environmental protection initiatives.

working paper on water markets

 

  • Working Paper on Development Financing for Tangible Results. A Paradigm Shift to Impact Investing and Outcome Models: The Case of Sanitation Asia

Traditionally, government, corporate and civil society cultivated their own approaches to financing or delivering sanitations systems which has proven to be inefficient. This report challenges these three groups to work together, and create a new financing paradigm. By identifying a number of opportunities to engage large-scale capital pools that should be tapped, the global sanitation issue can be addressed.

working paper on development financing

 

  • Enabling Policies for Financing Water Related Sustainable Development Goals 

This discussion paper is focused on exploring policies, actions, and strategies to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by improving the resilience of water systems and infrastructure. This requires strategic mobilization of public resources and augmenting the opportunities for private investment. 

Enabling Policies for Financing Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals

  • Publication link: https://www.unescap.org/resources/enabling-policies-financing-water-related-sustainable-development-goals 

     
  • A Better World Vol. 5 

A Better World: Volume 5 outlines the concept, the main elements and the current international framework for assessing the progress towards SDG11. It proposes a stepwise approach to further tailor national requirements with the overall goal of making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The following articles discuss the progress and challenges in this essential topic, highlighting good practices in a wide variety of societies and disciplines.

A Better World

Городская устойчивость
  • Quick Guide for Policy Makers on Pro-poor Urban Climate Resilience in Asia and the Pacific

The Quick Guide for Policy Makers on Pro-Poor Urban Climate Resilience in Asia and the Pacific focuses on the need to enhance understanding of the region’s key urban stakeholders on climate change, discusses how it affects efforts to realize sustainable urban development, and explores what actions can be taken to synergize continued commitments to poverty reduction alongside urban climate resilience.

quick guide for policy makers

 

  • Mainstreaming Climate Change into National Urban Policy

Under a joint initiative of UN-Habitat and ESCAP, ESCAP is leading the development of a regional guide on mainstreaming climate change related actions into national level urban related policies. This guide is the culmination of multi-year project interventions of UN-Habitat in a number of countries in Asia and the Pacific and brings together lessons learned and proposals on how to move forward. A link to this publication and related training materials will be available soon.

 

  • Ocean Cities: Supporting Pacific island developing States to adapt sustainable urban development to island systems

A new project from ESCAP/EDD will strengthen the capacity of SIDS member States to develop and apply an integrated policy approach for oceans-friendly and climate-responsive urban development adapted to island systems. ESCAP is in a unique position to build the capacity of SIDS in developing an integrated approach and to sharing knowledge in and beyond the region. With multidisciplinary expertise and an office on the ground, ESCAP can fill the current vacuum of regional urban development partners in the Pacific and act as a catalyst to develop an integrated ‘ocean cities action framework’, facilitate South-South cooperation and knowledge sharing, and assist strengthening a regional voice of SIDS in a fragmented landscape of sustainable development agendas. With adequate regional cooperation and support, SIDS have the potential to pioneer a climate-smart ocean-centered framework for resilient urban development that can break this vicious cycle of interlinked challenges.   

Инструменты и методологии
  • Ocean Cities: Regional Policy Guide

The Ocean Cities concept is an integrated policy approach for ocean-focused and climate-responsive urban development strategies, with a focus on urban areas in Pacific island developing States. Ocean Cities are where urban landscapes and seascapes meet, where built and natural environments near coastlines interface and where human behaviour and urban development have profound impacts on both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Ocean Cities are at the forefront of the climate change consequences, the urbanization challenges and other development pressures. Within the context of ongoing urbanization processes in Pacific island developing States, the guide recognizes the important links between the impacts of urban growth and development, climate change impacts, ocean health and coastal systems, and the effect these factors have on the development and resilience of Ocean Cities.

11

 

  • Ocean Cities: Snapshot for Policy-makers

This Snapshot provides an Executive Summary of the Ocean Cities concept, the context, challenges and opportunities of Ocean Cities, and outlines several policy recommendations for the implementation of solutions for simultaneously achieving urban climate resilience, improved sustainability of ocean resources and better integration of landscape and seascape planning. Interested parties are encouraged to refer to the Regional Policy Guide document (also available on the Urban Development Resources webpage) for additional in-depth content.

ocean cities policy snapshot

 

  • The Future of Asian and Pacific Cities 2019

The Future of Asian and Pacific Cities 2019 is the third report, jointly developed by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in partnership with the Asian Development Bank, Centre for Livable Cities Singapore, the European Union, The Rockefeller Foundation and the United Nations Development Programme.

The report explores important policy pathways to guide urban stakeholders towards a future vision of inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities within the region. It makes the case for four priorities and four approaches to realize a sustainable urban future in Asia and the Pacific.Getting these essentials right in Asian and Pacific cities today is vital in order to adapt to the demands of tomorrow and to deliver on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the New Urban Agenda.

Future of Asia-Pacific Cities
Publication link: The Future of Asian and Pacific Cities 2019 

 

  • State of Asia Pacific Cities Report

The State of Asian and Pacific Cities Report (SoAPCR) is a recurring publication of ESCAP, UN-Habitat and other partners that comprehensively captures the region’s rapid urban transformation. The 2015 SoAPCR highlighted the growing gaps between current urbanization patterns and what is needed to shift to a more inclusive and sustainable urban future, in which the region’s cities are unquestionably tied to national, regional and global development prospects. The next report, The Future of Asian and Pacific Cities, planned for 2019 intends to focus more strongly on the region’s urbanizations trends.

state of asian pacific cities report

 

  • Asia Pacific Urban Forum

Every four to five years, ESCAP also convenes the multi-stakeholder Asia Pacific Urban Forums, often in conjunction with other major events, such as the regional preparatory meeting for Habitat III in 2015 in Jakarta, Indonesia. The objective is for multiple stakeholders to exchange views on persistent and emerging issues, generate new ideas, provide guidance to ongoing processes and initiatives, and to coordinate development responses.

APUF

 

APUF 7

 

  • Urban SDG Knowledge Platform

ESCAP, together with CityNet and the Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) has initiated the “Urban SDG Knowledge Platform” with the aim to facilitate knowledge sharing and cooperation to support urban practitioners in localising the SDGs and implementing the NUA. Central to the Platform is a repository of city-level good practices, policies and initiatives. It also aims to provide think pieces and update on news and events.

urban sdg knowledge platform

УСТОЙЧИВАЯ УРБАНИЗАЦИЯ