Повестка дня на период до 2030 года явно основана на правах человека, а Цели в области устойчивого развития (ЦУР) направлены на реализацию прав человека для всех. Кроме того, обязательство никого не забыть отражает основополагающие принципы прав человека, касающиеся недискриминации и равенства. Фактически, анализ показал, что более 90% целей Целей в области устойчивого развития (ЦУР) связаны с международными стандартами в области прав человека и труда.
Таким образом, реализация ЦУР косвенно продвигает права человека и наоборот. Они представляют собой два взаимодополняющих нарратива: ЦУР подкрепляются политическими обязательствами на высоком уровне, а права человека являются стандартами, которые во многих случаях имеют обязательную юридическую силу. ЦУР можно в некотором смысле рассматривать как способ реализации обязательств в области прав человека.
Рассматривая ЦУР и права человека не в качестве двух отдельных нарративов или двух направлений работы для правительств, а скорее в качестве взаимодополняющих рамок, государства могут найти синергизм в объединении своих усилий по реализации ЦУР и прав человека. Это верно как на уровне интервенций, так и на уровне отчетности. Например, инвестируя в качественное образование для всех, государства способствуют реализации права на образование, а также, например, ЦУР 4 о качественном образовании. Точно так же государства и другие участники могут использовать анализ, данные и рекомендации, которые уже производятся институционализированными правозащитными механизмами, для мониторинга ЦУР.
Monitoring and Reporting
The 2030 Agenda specifies that the purpose of the Follow-up and Review (FUR) mechanism is to ensure accountability and that FUR mechanisms should be inclusive, participatory, transparent, people-centred, gender-sensitive, respect human rights and have a particular focus on the poorest, most vulnerable and those furthest behind. These principles reflect the principles of the human rights-based approach to development, which should guide both the design and the operationalization of FUR mechanisms.
FUR mechanisms are voluntary and country-led. They do not foresee mechanisms for independent review or provisions of direct recommendations to States. Thus, highlighting how the SDGs are underpinned by international legally binding human rights instruments with institutionalised monitoring bodies adds a dimension of accountability that is otherwise absent.
While there is no uniform model for national FUR processes, it is clear that the breadth of the 2030 Agenda will require government coordination across a wide range of ministries and institutions to ensure coherence and systematic action.
The high degree of convergence between human rights and the SDGs and the existence of robust human rights reporting mechanism means that coordinating reporting efforts can ease the reporting burden of States. This can include:
- Systematised qualitative analysis and data through institutionalised reporting and monitoring mechanisms;
- Identification of specific and systemic implementation challenges, as well as recommendations and guidance to overcome these;
- Methodologies for innovative and participatory data collection, including exposure of inequalities through disaggregation of data and qualitative analysis;
- Expertise on developing national monitoring systems that are aligned with global standards, and best practice on peer review mechanisms, expert and thematic reviews;
- Best practice on systematic engagement of stakeholders in monitoring, reporting and follow up, guided by HRBA principles of accountability, transparency and access to information.
As independent State bodies, National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) monitor and analyse the national human rights situation against international standards. NHRIs often prepare annual status reports on the general situation as well as analysis and research on specific human rights topics. Many NHRIs have a strong focus on discrimination and inequalities, and monitor the situation of particular groups of rights-holders and of vulnerable and marginalised groups.
The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a peer mechanism under the Human Rights Council, reviewing the human rights performance of all UN member states at regular intervals and providing recommendations to States to overcome human rights challenges. The UPR builds on inclusive multi-stakeholder reporting – including shadow reports by NHRIs - and preparation processes that can directly contribute to FUR but also inspire the design and working modalities of other FUR processes.
The human rights treaty bodies, the special procedures under the Human Rights Council and the supervisory bodies of the International Labour Organization (ILO) are institutionalized and regular mechanisms that monitor specific aspects of the 2030 Agenda and can immediately contribute to both country-specific and thematic FUR processes.
Leave No One Behind
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development aspires to ensure that no one is left behind through the Sustainable Development Goals. When committing to the Agenda member States recognize the dignity of the individual, in all shapes and forms. Seeking that “no one is left behind” reflects the fundamental human rights principle of non-discrimination. Furthermore, the Agenda endeavours to reach first those who are the furthest behind which means focusing efforts on marginalized and oppressed peoples. In order to ensure that no specific group of persons is left behind, the Agenda states that its follow-up and review processes should be informed by data which is high-quality, accessible, timely, reliable and disaggregated by income, sex, age, race, ethnicity, migration status, disability and geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
It has been established that there are more than 370 million indigenous people in approximately 70 different countries around the world – representing 5% of the global population, indigenous peoples account for 15% of the world’s poorest.1 Whilst indigenous peoples across the globe are highly diverse, with unique cultures, languages, knowledge systems and livelihood practices, a common thread is a shared history of marginalisation, the subsequent undermining of their right to self-determination and a frequent violation of their human rights.
Respecting the rights of indigenous peoples: a due diligence checklist for companies
Operational guidance on how to ensure due diligence when operating in areas where their projects may affect indigenous peoples.
Persons with disabilities
More than 650 million people around the world live with some kind of disability.2 This very large minority are in every region in the world, in every country often live on the margins of society, deprived from some of life’s fundamental experiences such as going to school, a career, a family,
socializing or even voting. A human rights principle of leaving no one behind must incorporate person with disabilities as proposed within the SDG goals and targets.
The rights of persons with disabilities and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
This is a matrix which demonstrates the links between the SDGs and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Human Rights Defenders
According to the Secretary General’s 2020 SDG Progress Report,3 the United Nations reported 357 killings and 30 enforced disappearances of human rights defenders, journalists and trade unionists in 47 countries in 2019. This data is linked to reporting on target 16.10, and more specifically, its indicator, 16.10.1. SDG target 16.10 makes an explicit commitment to ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms. Seventeen international and regional human rights treaties and declarations are directly linked to this target, thereby providing a rich source of human rights standards and recommendations to guide implementation of this target and further accountability. The aspirations in target 16.10 related to the enjoyment of fundamental freedoms is no less important now in view of state responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. During this period, there have been reports of illegitimate restrictions and violations to these freedoms under the guise of Covid-19 related measures.
Securing an enabling environment for human rights defenders
This paper focuses specifically on the potential for leveraging human rights standards and mechanisms for furthering the implementation and monitoring of an enabling environment for human rights defenders, primarily under SDG target 16.10, but also under other targets, as relevant.
Tools and Methodologies
The Human Rights Guide to the SDGs allows the user to explore which human rights standards underpin which SDG. It is broken down by SDG indicator and lists all the relevant articles in the relevant human rights instruments.
The UPR-SDG Data Explorer is a searchable database that links recommendations from the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It allows users to explore how UPR recommendations for specific countries, regions or groups of rights-holders are linked to the 169 targets contained in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
This is a practical guide by Amnesty International detailing how stakeholders can get involved in holding states accountable for their SDG commitments, including through a human rights based approach.